ESIC Market


Information standard

Statistical methods

Authors must include complete information on the statistical methods and measures used in their research, including justification for the suitability of the statistical test used. Reviewers will be asked to verify statistical methods, and the manuscript can be submitted for specialized statistical review if deemed necessary.


To drive maximum reuse and utility of published research, we expect authors to adhere to specific field standards available for data preparation and recording. Authors should adhere to best practices in their field for sharing data, with particular attention to maintaining the confidentiality of participants.

Image integrity and standards

Images submitted with a manuscript for review should be minimally processed. Authors should retain their raw data and metadata files, as editors may request them to assist in manuscript evaluation. If raw data is not available, evaluation of the manuscript can be stopped until the problem is resolved. Some degree of image processing is acceptable for publication, but the final image must correctly represent the original data and meet community standards. The following guidelines will aid in the accurate presentation of data at the image processing level:

- Authors should list all image acquisition tools and image processing software packages used. Authors should document key image collection settings and processing manipulations in the Methodology section.

- Images collected at different times or from different locations should not be combined into a single image, unless the resulting image is stated to be a time-averaged data product or a time-lapse sequence. If juxtaposing images are essential, the edges should be clearly demarcated in the figure and described in the legend.

- Retouching tools such as cloning and editing tools in Photoshop, or any feature that deliberately hides manipulations, should be avoided.

- Processing (such as changing brightness and contrast) is appropriate only when applied equally to the entire image and applied equally to controls. The contrast should not be adjusted for the data to disappear. Excessive manipulations, such as processing to emphasize one region in the image at the expense of others (for example, by using a biased choice of threshold settings), are inappropriate, as is emphasizing experimental data related to control.